[Worldkings] Top 100 pioneers in all fields (P. 100) Henri Coanda (Romania): The creator of the world's first jet-powered aircraft


(Worldkings.org) Henri Coanda was the creator of the world's first jet aircraft, which he tried himself in 1910 in France. The aircraft was exhibited at the International Air Show from Paris.

Henri Marie Coanda (June 7, 1886 – November 25, 1972) was a Romanian inventor, aerodynamics pioneer and the builder of the world’s first jet-powered aircraft, the Coanda-1910.


Born in Bucharest, Coanda was the second child of a large family. His father was General Constantin Coanda, a mathematics professor at the National School of Bridges and Roads. His mother, Aida Danet, was the daughter of French physician Gustave Danet, and was born in Brittany. In 1910, he graduated at the head of the first class of aeronautical engineers at the newly founded École Nationale Superieure d’Ingenieurs en Construction Aéronautique (now the École Nationale Supérieure de l’Aéronautique et de l’Espace, also known as SUPAERO).

Coanda came up with the idea of the jet engine in 1908 and by 1909 he had built the first prototype, however, the problem was that the concept of planes was still fresh at the time and even propeller planes were not evolved to their full potential.

In 1910, using the workshop of Gianni Caproni, he designed, built and piloted the first ‘thermojet’ powered aircraft, known as the Coandã-1910, which he demonstrated publicly at the second International Aeronautic Salon in Paris. The powerplant used a 4-cylinder piston engine to power a compressor, which fed to two burners for thrust, instead of using a propeller.

On the patent granted to Coanda în May 1910 and enhanced în 1911 it was clearly stated that the controlled turbine was arranged to transform the reactions resulting from the flow of the fluid and kinetic energy of the mechanism, in axial reactions to obtain the translation of the vehicle hence its movement.


On the 10th of December 1910, he tested the airplane himself at Issy -les-Moulineaux, outside Paris. Coandã lost control of the jet plane, which went off of the runway and caught fire. Fortunately, he escaped with just a good scare and some minor injuries to his face and hands. After the crash in 1910, except for paperwork, the project was no longer pursued.

Although during WWI the demand for technology and development was high and aviation became a true industry, it was only in 1936, when Hans von Ohain started developing a jet aircraft for the military. They flew for the first time a He 178 model in Germany, on 27 August 1939. In other words, it has been a large gap and a world war full of flying aces and military aviation development until the technology was used. He was truly a man ahead of his time.

As a homage paid to the great scientist, Romania’s biggest air gate, formerly known as Otopeni Airport, bears his name - Bucharest “Henri Coanda” International Airport. On the occasion of the anniversary of a century since the exhibition of the first jet aircraft at the second Aeronautics Salon in Paris, Romfilatelia introduces into circulation the postage stamps issue “Centenary of the jet aircraft - Coandă 1910”.


According to Wikipedia & havkar.com

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