Baldassare Forestiere, a Sicilian immigrant, came to America in 1901 to pursue his dreams of becoming a citrus farmer. In Fresno, California, Forestiere crafted a subterranean complex of patios, grottoes and garden courts, all featuring arches and stonework using the local hardpan sedimentary rock. He became a self-taught artist and patterned his underground world after the ancient catacombs he admired as a boy, near his home town of Filari, Sicily.
No plans were put on paper; each room and passageway was created in Forestiere's mind as he worked. With simple farm tools - a pick, a shovel and a wheelbarrow - the young immigrant dug, chipped and carved the unforgiving hardpan for 40 years, all in his spare time! By the time he was 44 years old, he had excavated and planted over 10 acres.
In addition to his unique building methods, the humble immigrant was also able to plant multiple varieties of fruit-bearing trees and vines, up to 20 feet underground! Orange, lemon and grapefruit trees were planted throughout his underground gardens - many varieties growing together on the same tree! Forestiere also grew more unusual varieties like kumquat, loquat, jujube, carob, quince and dates as well as wine and table grapes. Fruit could easily be plucked from the surface of the gardens, by simply bending down. He truly created an oasis in a modern-day desert of pavement!
According to undergroundgardens.com