Cappadocia is a region in central Turkey that is home to one of the most surreal and spectacular landscapes in the world. Thousands of years of erosion shaped the terrain and, taking a cue from Mother Nature, humans began carving a network of caves and tunnels into the soft rock, starting as early as the fourth century A.D.
Cappadocia’s incomparable landscape resulted from millennia of geological formation. The volcanoes Mt. Erciyes (near Kayseri) and Hasan Dağı (near Aksaray) spewed ash into the air. The volcanic ash settled and consolidated into a light; porous rock called “tuff.” Rain and wind have eroded away the soft rock, leaving behind the swirling cliffs and fairy chimneys.
There are different types of fairy chimneys, including mushroom-shaped, pointed, and columnar fairy chimneys. In some areas like Pasabag, Rose, and Zelve valley, they cluster together, forming breathtaking forests of rock. Other areas with fairy chimneys include Urgup, Soganli, Pigeon valley, and basically every other valley in Cappadocia.
The region of Cappadocia is a place where nature and history integrate. While geographical events created fairy chimneys – the people carved houses and churches inside these chimneys. Later on, decorated them with frescoes in this historical process, bringing the traces of civilizations for thousands of years to present. Written history of Cappadocia, where human settlement dates back to the Paleolithic era, begins with the Hittites. Hosting trade colonies throughout history and founding commercial and social bridges between countries, Cappadocia was one of the important junctions of the Silk Road.
In total, Cappadocia is home to about 70 breathtaking valleys. Some of these are dried up river valleys, while others were formed due to erosion and others still have rivers running through them. And while fairy chimneys are a common feature in almost all of these valleys, others like Ihlara valley have something different to offer. The valley has a river running along its floor, is one of the most natural places to be, offering a breath of fresh air and undisturbed natural beauty.
Cappadocia's climate is mild, pleasant and does not fluctuate much during the year. In general, visitors can travel to Cappadocia in any season. July, August is the hottest time of the year here, the temperature can reach 40 degrees Celsius. This is also the peak tourist season in Cappadocia, the number of tourists will be quite crowded. To avoid crowds, you should also come to this city in April, May (spring) or September, October (autumn). This time the weather is extremely beautiful, with few tourists, it is ideal for you to explore the land of Cappadocia. In addition, winter in the Cappadocia valley is when the snow falls very romantic, the whole city is covered with white snow, like a fairyland. However, at this stage, outdoor activities such as hot air ballooning and trekking will be restricted.
According to Wikipedia