The valley is famous for its rose-growing industry which have been cultivated there for centuries, and which produces 85% of the world's rose oil. The centre of the rose oil industry is Kazanlak, while other towns of importance include Karlovo, Sopot, Kalofer and Pavel banya. Each year, festivals are held celebrating roses and rose oil.
The picking season lasts from May to June. During this period, the area gives off a pleasant scent and is covered with multi-coloured flowers. The gathering process, traditionally a woman's task, requires great dexterity and patience. The flowers are carefully cut one by one and laid in willow-baskets which are then sent to the distilleries.
In September 2014 the European Commission approved Bulgarian Rose Oil («Bulgarsko rozovo maslo») as a new Protected Geographical Indication .