Based on the world record nomination from America Records Institute (AMRI) and Decision No. WK/USA.INDIA/727/2021/No.183, World Records Union (WorldKings) officially declared Carolina Reaper as the world’s hottest chili pepper on July 31st, 2021.
The Carolina Reaper is a cultivar of the Capsicum chinense plant. Developed by South Carolina breeder Ed Currie, the pepper is red and gnarled, with a bumpy texture and small pointed tail.
The sensory heat or pungency detected when eating a Carolina Reaper derives from the density of capsaicinoids, particularly capsaicin, which relates directly to the intensity of chili pepper heat and Scoville scale.
Bred in a Rock Hill, South Carolina, greenhouse by "Smokin" Ed Currie, proprietor of the PuckerButt Pepper Company in Fort Mill, the Carolina Reaper was certified as the world's hottest chili pepper.
The crossbreed is between a "really nastily hot" La Soufriere pepper from the Caribbean island of St. Vincent and a Naga Viper pepper from India and is named 'Reaper' due to the shape of its tail. It has been described as having a fruity taste, with the initial bite being sweet and then immediately turning to "molten lava".
In April 2018, a case report of "thunderclap headaches" in a 34-year-old man – who was hospitalized a few days after consuming one Carolina Reaper pepper of unspecified size in a contest – included a presumptive diagnosis of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS). With no reason to believe pepper compounds had a role in the mechanism of RCVS, other clinical interpretations, such as a stress response from eating such a hot pepper, may explain the headaches.
According to en.wikipedia.