Based on the world record nomination from Europe Records Institute (EURI) and Decision No. WK/USA.INDIA/724/2021/No.180, World Records Union (WorldKings) officially declared Nemo's Garden is the "World first underwater farm house" on July 24, 2021.
In the summer of 2012, Sergio Gamberini, founder of diving equipment ﬁrm Ocean Reef Group, was enjoying a seaside vacation on the Italian Riviera. Would it be possible, he wondered, to create the perfect growing conditions for basil, the most popular local herb and an essential ingredient for pesto? Like most herbs, basil prefers protected, sunny locations with well-drained soils and a constant, stable temperature. Glancing at the sea, Gamberini was struck with an unusual idea: why not try to grow basil underwater?
To realize this strange idea, Gamberini used dome-shaped greenhouses and fixed them at a depth of 7.8 meters below sea level. By maintaining a consistent air pressure inside, water cannot enter these greenhouses. From there, Gamberini can create gaps in the sea to grow vegetables.
In terms of water supply, this Italian farmer used sea water itself, through the process of removing salt and adding essential minerals to crops for irrigation. Besides, at this depth, sunlight can still shine down, so his plants theoretically have all the necessary elements to be able to reproduce and grow as usual.
It may seem very complicated and expensive, but the way of farming in the water, has superior properties that we cannot get with the terrestrial environment. Since the air inside the greenhouse is completely artificially supplied, we can control the air quality well, which is almost impossible when growing vegetables on land. The temperature under water is much more stable than above the atmosphere. Of course, there are no pests that live in the water, so pesticides are not used at all. Therefore, it can be affirmed that the vegetables grown by this method are 100% clean.
In addition to the above factors, it is also necessary to consider that this is a very sustainable and environmentally friendly agricultural model. Because at the moment, Mr. Sergio Gamberini's greenhouses operate entirely with energy from solar cells and wind wheels.
According to Businessinsider