Lesotho, officially the Kingdom of Lesotho, is an enclaved country surrounded entirely by South Africa. Lesotho has an area of just over 30,000 km2 and has a population of about 2 million. Its capital and largest city is Maseru. The official languages are Sesotho and English.
Lesotho was previously the British Crown Colony of Basutoland, but it declared independence from the United Kingdom on 4 October 1966. It is now a fully sovereign state and is a member of the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, the African Union, and the Southern African Development Community (SADC).
Lesotho's geographic location makes it extremely vulnerable to political and economic developments in South Africa. It is a member of many regional economic organisations, including the Southern African Development Community (SADC), and the Southern African Customs Union (SACU). It is also active in the United Nations (UN), the African Union (AU), the Non-Aligned Movement, the Commonwealth, and many other international organisations.
Lesotho covers 30,355 km2. It is the only independent state in the world that lies entirely above 1,000 metres in elevation. Its lowest point of 1,400 metres is thus the highest lowest point of any country in the world. Over 80 percent of the country lies above 1,800 metres. Lesotho is also the southernmost landlocked country in the world and is entirely surrounded by South Africa. It is by far the largest of the world's three independent states completely surrounded by the territory of another country, with Vatican City and San Marino being the other two. Additionally, it is the only such state outside the Italian peninsula, and the only one that is not a microstate.
Lesotho lies between latitudes 28° and 31°S, and longitudes 27° and 30°E. About 12% of Lesotho is arable land, however, this land is vulnerable to soil erosion, and it is estimated that 40 million tons of soil are lost each year due to erosion.
According to wikipedia