The top exports of Somalia are charcoal, livestock, bananas and scrap metal. Somalia had a very promising future before core countries of the world decided to intervene in its economic future and cause a disruption. It is now a hyperinflationary economy with uncertainty and instability being the primary reasons for lack of foreign investment.
9. South Sudan
The primary export of South Sudan is crude oil. The main types of corruption in Sudan are embezzlement, police corruption and involve public financial management and extractives. It had been predicted to attain self reliance after the freedom but it plunged into civil war leading to international isolationism. Its rulers control virtually every part of the country’s economy thus hindering what could have been a very functional state. Rumor has it that it is the Western forces that are responsible for the civil war in the country.
8. North Korea
The country mainly exports oil, textile, coal and ore. It is widespread in the country, in fact North Korea stands at the 175th place in the most corrupt countries out of 177 from the bottom upwards. The regime implements draconian punishments to exert its control and information to foreign media is controlled usually by offering bribes to policemen. Radio and TV access is also modified according to the regime’s interests. The North Korean government is allegedly involved in extortion, sale of drugs, sale of counterfeit goods and human and arms trafficking. The proceedings of these activities are used to develop the country’s nuclear arms and other weapons. It appears to be a Hollywood show coming to life!
Syria mainly exports crude oil, petroleum products and minerals. ISIS has been raiding Syrian museums and heritage sites in order to sell the artefacts in the international market. The buyers are both legal and illegal. The Syrian government buys oil and electricity from the ISIS and rebel controlled areas and the money that the latter gets in return is used against the very government that is buying the commodities. The Syrian government officially abides by the 1997 agreement against the use of chemical weapons but has been allegedly using these weapons against its own civilians although the government denies it. Credible sources say that the Syrian regime has chemical weapons stored at around 95 sites in the country and it is like a chemical weapon depot.
Yemen is the poorest of the Middle Eastern countries and possibly that is why it is also the most corrupt. Poverty makes the masses do horrible things as people simply can’t see their kids dying of hunger. In Yemen, women literally have to choose between their kids, deciding which one gets food and which one dies of starvation. Corruption is so prevalent in the society that citizens feel helpless. Bribery and petty corruption alongside nepotism and corruption in the military are common problems in the country. Under Ali Abdullah Saleh from 1990 to 2012, the country observed record corruption of the kinds mentioned.
It exports gold, coal, Arabic gum, livestock and oil majorly. The country is one of the most corrupt nations in the world occupying 177th place out of 183 in total. The reasons for corruption are lack of government regulation, lack of accountability, widespread instability in politics, low score in rule of law and in government’s effectiveness. There is heavy foreign investment in the sectors of construction and transportation but it is commonly known that there is a lot of corruption in these areas as well. Possible reasons are lack of accountability and control f the regime.
Corruption represents a significant obstacle for companies that want to do business in Libya. It has the largest oil reserves in Africa and one of the largest in the world. The economy is based on oil and it constitutes 70% of GDP and approximately 90% of the government’s revenue. State owned businesses dominate the local market and companies struggle with unfair competition as bribery and favouritism are common in the country. There was rampant corruption during the rule of Gaddafi and the situation only worsened after the revolution. The Arab Spring did not show the expected results in any of the countries that underwent the revolt in 2011. The law enforcement in the country is a very weak department after the revolution. The constitution is still in the process of being written and law and order situation remains abysmal as of now.
As we move towards South Asian peripheral countries, the exports shift from mechanized and specialized products to handmade and natural ingredients mostly involving artefacts and raw material. Afghanistan exports carpets, medicinal herbs and dried fruit. Corruption is consistently singled out as a standing problem in Afghanistan by the local population itself. The primary reason behind prevalent and widespread corruption is the high instability in the area. The regime was never stable or strong enough to devise a proper structure of governance as Afghanistan plunged into one war after another for decades in a row. One of the recent major scandals in the country was the Kabul bank scandal involving the President of Afghanistan and his lavish lifestyle.
According to the Heritage Foundation, corruption is a basic characteristic of the government of Guinea-Bissau. Its ranking on the index has deteriorated since 2012. There is a prevalence of impunity and citizens of the city have no right to information. The most probable cause of widespread corruption is drug trafficking that is a norm in the country. The place is a haven and heaven for the drug lords of Columbia. There is widespread poverty and a collapse of the state in general that favours the drug business. There was some improvement between 2008 and 2011 after which a military coup brought an end to the government’s efforts to reign corruption.
Venezuela’s economy relies on oil exports which are 96% of the total exports of the country. 75% of the Venezuelans believe that there is widespread corruption in the country. It is the 13th largest producer and 10th biggest exporter of oil. A venezuelan NGO claimed that during the past 25 years, some 100 billion Dollars from oil have been misused by those in position. Drug trafficking, alleged government support of terrorist organization, bribery and nepotism are common forms of corruption in the country.
Corruption is hidden wilfully so it is impossible to measure it directly. In order to measure corruption, proxies are used by agencies like the Transparency International. Common criticisms that these agencies have to face is that corruption is too complex to be measured by one or few performance indicators. Moreover, these agencies leave out the private sector when they are accounting for corruption in the state as a whole. Transparency International has thus warned that a country with a clean CPI score may also be linked to corruption internationally. There is no country thus that can be corruption free.
According to wonderslist.com